OER Civil Engineering

Session1 – Elements of Remote Sensing


– What is Remote Sensing?

– Introduction to the basic elements in Remote Sensing

– Information contained in an image

– Applications of image interpretation


The use of satellite imagery for earth observation, the means of obtaining data and the basics of the image content have been discussed in this session.

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Session2 – Energy Sources


– Energy sources and radiation principles and Electromagnetic Spectrum

– Surface temperature and radiation

– Energy interactions in the atmosphere and Atmospheric interference


Thermal scanner imagery interpretation is briefly described. Radiant temperature differences are used to analyses daytime and night time images. Important applications of thermal imagery are described while emphasizing the importance of radiometric calibration for achieving accurate radiometric information.

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Session 3 – Energy Interactions with Earth Surface Features


– Introduction to energy interactions with earth surface features

– Spectral reflectance

– Spectral Response Patterns

– Applications of spectral signatures and spectral response patterns


We have seen the energy interactions with earth surface features and the methods used to identify image data using spectral response patterns and spectral signatures. We have also observed how temporal effects and spatial effects are used to detect changes in surface features.

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Session 4 – History of Earth Observation, Satellite Orbits and Introduction to Sensing Methods


– Brief history of the development of photography and the techniques of processing

– Introduction to satellite imaging

– Satellite Orbits

– Introduction to Multispectral, Thermal and Hyperspectral Sensing and Radar sensing


We have seen the development to satellite images starting from simple photography for earth observation. The two satellite orbits that require to be covered in order to obtain a full coverage of the earth have been discussed. The different types of scanning and imaging methods used for obtaining data have been introduced.

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Session 5 – Introduction to Weather Satellites and Earth Resource Satellites


– Weather Satellites

– Earth Resource Satellites operating in the optical spectrum

– Other Land Satellites with High and Moderate Resolution

– Very High-Resolution Land Satellites

– Radar Imaging Satellites


The orbits covered by satellites and the spectral bands within which sensing is carried out will vary depending on the data to be gathered. In this session we have gathered information regarding some satellites and the orbit to be covered for weather information and for earth resource information. The importance of temporal resolution for weather forecasting and the ground and spatial resolution for earth resource data analysis has been emphasized.

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Session 6 – Satellite Data and Acquisition of Satellite Images, Introduction to Geodesy, Reference Data and the Global Positioning System


– Satellite data and Mapping

– Data acquisition

– Vantage point for Earth observation and data acquisition

– Introduction to geodesy

– Reference Data

– The Global Positioning System (GPS)


We have gathered information on maps and satellite images, and the sensors used for acquisition of images. Referencing of the points on the images with respect to the ground has been discussed in brief.

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Session 7 – Analogue Interpretation of Satellite Images


– Elements of image interpretation

– The image data

– The study methodology

– Examples of image feature identification


The basic feature characteristics used in identification of analogue images has been discussed; namely, shape, size, pattern, tone, texture, shadows, site, association and height. Selection of bands and band combinations for identification of different features for the Landsat Thematic Mapper was set out. Analogue analyses of drainage patterns, landforms, lineaments and land cover and Landsat image interpretation have been outlined in brief.

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